Sem X-ray analysis
05/31/2001 REPORT NO.: A3747/WCW
Setsco Services PTE LTD
Report on Performance Assessment of Penetron Waterproofing Admixture
Results: The SEM-EDX analysis conducted on the treated concrete showed the presence of dendritic crystals, which are found in pores such as capillary tracts, shrinkage cracks and bleed water tracts that allow crystallization of the additional cementitious material. This clearly shows the crystallization effect of Penetron Admixture, which reduces and seals the pores in the concrete. This will effectively enhance the durability of the concrete by preventing ingress of water and chemicals that destroy the matrix of the cement hydrate.

10/25/2002 REPORT NO.: A6127/CHF
Setsco Services PTE LTD
Microscopic Analysis on the concrete Cores From Retaining Wall at Changi Airport Terminal 3
Results: A lot of coarse-grained elongated crystals were seen lining the crack. All these crystals showed low birefringence under crossed polarized microscope. The coarse grained elongated crystal contained mainly Ca, O, Si. The fine-grained needle-like crystal was predominantly made up of Ca, Si, O, S, and Al, which was probably ettringite.

12/1/2002 ACCI REF. NO.: J060673 & J061037
The University of New South Wales: The Australian Centre for Construction Innovation
Microscopic Examination of Crystalline Products in Penetron Admix Modified Concrete Samples After a Crack Healing Test Result
Results: The observation from a comprehensive SEM examination of the Penetron Admix modified Type GP concrete samples demonstrate significant evidence of a crystallization mechanism by which the Penetron Admix reacts with cement hydrates to form characteristic crystalline networks and effectively seal cracks in the modified concrete.
TABLE 1. CRACK HEALING CAPACITY (ACCI-METHOD)
Crack Healing Time (from Concrete Age 21 Days) Relative Leakage Rate through Cracks in Penetron Modified Concrete (Mix-P)
0 Days
100%
21 Days
88%
70 Days
27%
151 Days
12%